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Discussing Anson and Forsberg, “Moving Beyond the Academic Community”

by Steve Krause on September 9th, 2014

This is where we’ll talk about the essay from Chris Anson and Lee Forsberg, “Moving Beyond the Academic Community: Transitional Stages in Professional Writing.” It is available via emuonline and the document sharing section of that web site. To get to it, log into the emuonline page, click on the “Doc Sharing” tab at the top of the screen, download the PDF, print it out so you can take notes! and then join in on the conversation here. This is an old essay– almost 25 years old at this point!– but I think the basic premise about the transition and the differences between writing in academic settings and writing in the workplace still hold.  See more after the break.

 

Just to backtrack a bit: I wanted us to begin with a discussion about the general importance of rhetoric and of genre in large part because I think it’s important to realize from the get-go what this class is really about. We’re going to be learning more about some of the basic conventions and “genres” of writing that takes places generally in professional settings– all of our assignments are examples of that. But it would be rather simplistic and boring to assume that all we were studying here were basic formulas and formatting issues. Rather, the kind of writing you do in the “professional world” is like all other kinds of writing in that it is rhetorical:  you have to tailor your writing based on what it is you are trying to accomplish as a rhetor, what your message is about, and what you can assume or know about your audience.  Further, all of these kinds of writings fall into certain genres where readers have some assumptions about what these texts might look like. That’s complicated of course, but as a simple example: if you wrote an application letter in the genre of an epic poem, you probably wouldn’t get the job.

Anson and Forsberg are a continuation of this introductory part of the class and laying some of the basic groundwork. I think their study demonstrates two very important things overall. First, success as an “academic writer” does not automatically translate into writing outside of academia. This is important because sometimes I hear students (and colleagues, frankly) say things like “good writing is good writing and that’s that,” and what I think this study demonstrates is that is just not the case. Context is critical.

Second, all writers struggle when transitioning from one context to another. I’ve seen this over the years with freshmen learning how to write for college and for new Masters students trying to figure out how to write for graduate school. It’s normal and probably inevitable. What Anson and Forsberg do that’s useful and interesting is they identify these stages– from expectation to disorientation to transition and resolution (see page 208 for where they introduce this). It’s easy to identify with these stages, don’t you think?

This is also a useful read for anyone considering an internship anytime soon, too.

I don’t expect you to get all of the details of this study and there are definitely places where the level of detail is probably more interesting to academic-types like me than it is to most of you. Still, I hope you’re beginning to see that “writing in the professional world” is more than how to adjust the margins on a particular format of report.

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24 Comments
  1. Chelsea Idzior permalink

    I enjoyed Anson and Forsberg’s piece, and from the beginning I thought it made some great points worth paying attention to. This excerpt particularly stood out to me:
    “Belief in the importance of context to communication is, of course, not
    new. Its rediscovery in the field of composition studies, however,
    represents the development of a more social view of the writing
    process.”

    This passage got me thinking about the social-ness (not a word but didn’t know how else to describe it) of writing. I think that viewing writing as a social activity is a hard thing for many people to do unless they are taught from the time they are young writers to view it that way. Writing is often done solo, and it involves so much individual effort that it can be easy to get caught up in thinking that you are doing it for yourself. This is especially easy to do when you are writing to earn your own grade. I do not think that teachers stress to their students enough that writing is no different than speaking in that it has a recipient. Just like you wouldn’t talk to your boss the way you talk to your best friend, you don’t write for a room full of executives the way you might write for a college newspaper.

    Another reason it is easy to forget that writing is intensely social is that you are generally not in front of the audience that will be consuming the writing when you are creating it. Taking public relations courses has really helped me develop a social view of writing because it is hammered into your head during the PR writing process to keep the audience in mind. In public relations, every thing that you do is designed around being appealing to a recipient group of people, so PR courses are extremely helpful in teaching you to shape your writing voice in a way that is appropriate for who you are writing to.

    I also found interesting the three stages that they identified interns going through in their transition from academic to nonacademic writing. It got me thinking about my own experiences when I had to write for unfamiliar audiences, and I found that they rang pretty true to the stages. When I began writing for the Eastern Echo, it was entirely different than academic writing. Not only does journalistic writing go by AP Style, but you have to keep in mind that you are writing for a college newspaper, and thus have to write in a voice and write about topics that might interest that audience.

    I remember my editor tearing apart the first article that I wrote (and I was confident that it was solid, too). I was shocked, but I had to learn that I can’t write for the Echo the way I would write a paper for class. I did feel a little bit of a sense of failure at first because I have always been praised for my writing. The problem here wasn’t my writing skill, it was that I was writing inappropriately for the situation. Eventually, I caught on and it became just as normal to me as academic writing.

    • Steve Krause permalink

      I like that example about The Echo for two reasons. First, that editor “tore apart” your article because she or he wanted to help you. That’s important to remember when we start talking about peer review: we want to help each other be better as writers, and that means digging in there and giving firm (but not mean) criticism.

      Second, it’s what you have to do to be a better writer. What I mean is you didn’t say “well, I better not even try” or “that editor is WRONG, my story was PERFECT just the way it was.” And that’s a good thing because people who don’t try or who think there’s nothing to revise never grow as writers.

  2. Kristen Smith permalink

    Anson and Forsberg’s piece had a lot of interesting points to offer and has me viewing writing in a different manner. One of the first things that stood out to me about this piece was the distinction between the professional setting of writing and the academic setting. As a college student I often find myself thinking that the ways and “rules” I am learning in the academic setting must be the ones that will hold true through my life. While I’ve never thought that MLA formatting or creating a works cited page would be things that would follow me into my professional life, I have always viewed the styles and formats of my academic writings to be ones that would be replicated later in my life.

    As the study with the interns show and the message of the overall piece tell, this is not the case. I found the study with the interns very interesting and it made me think of my own writing styles and how these may change as I find myself becoming part of the professional world. The article mentions that those that are typically comfortable and knowledgeable in the styles of writing needed in the professional world are those with many years experience. I found this to be an interesting point. I’ve often wondered which employee has more of an advantage in the workplace: the new employee that has just graduated college or the experienced worker at the workplace. It seems that when it comes to professional writing, it may help to have some experience writing in your particular setting.

    Finally, I found the concept of writing being a social experience interesting. I have always found writing to be deeply personal, aside from my academic writing, which I approach in a different manner than other styles of writing. After reading this piece, I do feel that writing is more social than many people think. Writing is most often done for some type of audience, whether we’re writing with an aim towards a specific audience or not. This makes writing social and makes it something that must be considered in a social context. In the case of academic writing, the audience is usually a professor or a classroom of students, which can determine the style with which we write as well as the words and structures we use. When transitioning to the professional world it seems people struggle to know and understand their audience, which makes writing in the professional world a difficult task to adapt to. These ideas seem to come out in the three steps the interns experienced.

    The experiences of the interns seem to be somewhat universal and I feel that they are ones that we can expect to experience as we transition into writing in the professional world. Personally, I have never thought much about the ways I will need to change and adapt my own writing in transitioning away from academia, but after reading this piece I definitely do question how we can all better prepare for this transition.

  3. Kourtney Lovett permalink

    First, I’d like to start by saying that I found this study in general to be quite interesting. Perhaps I haven’t read enough studies to have a valid opinion on them, but I can say that the ones that I have read were nothing like this. I mean that in a good way. Most studies, in my opinion, are actually quite boring but this one was unique and grasped my attention. One thing that I liked is that they collected their data from personal interactions with the internees through the internship class over a period of time instead of collecting surveys or through other less personal forms of communication.

    One part of the essay that really made me think is an example given on page 203 regarding the comparison of writing between a group of young, employed legislative analysts and five academically prepared undergraduate students. From this example, they discovered that there were major differences between the way each group wrote. This example made me think about my experience in a journalism course that I took during my junior year of high school. Going into the course, I was naive in thinking that the style of writing used in journalism would parallel that used in English courses that I had taken in the past. I was so wrong. Everything was new and I felt so out of my element. I went from constructing nice, well thought out conclusions to simply abruptly ending articles that I wrote for the school paper. Like the two groups in the example, the writing styles were simply different.

    Now, that I am a junior in college, I realize that my transition from college writing to writing in a professional environment will be even more complicated than my English class to journalism writing experience. Before reading this study, I didn’t think too much about the transition that I’ll be making in about 5 years. I assume that like the interns in the study I will experience the stages of conflict and initiate as I attempt to settle into the role of professional writer instead of college student. I suppose I have something to look forward to.

    • LeeAnne Baumdraher permalink

      I think the study may have stood out for you because it’s so relevant! I mean, you can just put yourself in Louise’s shoes or Jean’s shoes. Going from academic writing to professional writing is a big, awkward stride. This study really hit home.

      • Kourtney Lovett permalink

        I agree with you. It is relevant to me unlike studies that are deeply rooted in science. Generally, the study really resonates with me.

  4. Natasha Wickenheiser permalink

    I found Anson and Forsberg’s article interesting and compelling to read. Not only did I relate to many of the interns, but I also enjoyed reading about both the process of learning to write professionally, and how writers choose models and mentors to guide their composition.

    As someone who will be entering the professional communications field soon, I connected most with the article when it discussed the experiences of the interns–especially their points of disorientation. The text made me think about the expectations I have for future internships and potential careers. I have always been the type of person to set very specific expectations for myself, and based on this article, that is probably a bad thing. The text encouraged me to try and be more open about new learning experiences, even if I know they will challenge me significantly. I know it’s far easier said than done, but I’m going to try and work toward that goal.

    Another intern experience I closely connected with was when Betsy wrote about her challenge of finding a balance between quietly completing her work, and being loud or obnoxious. I constantly feel as if I’m fighting that battle, and often wonder how my tendency toward quietness affects peoples’ opinions of me. Although it seems odd, it had not directly occurred to me that future employers could view that personal characteristic as a negative thing, too. I expect this will continue to be a balancing act with which I struggle.

    I also took note when the authors discussed resolution being dependent on frustration. Anson and Forsberg encourage writers to embrace challenges in learning to write professionally, rather than avoid them. Personally, I prefer to avoid conflict and frustration as much as possible. It’d be much easier–ideally–to become super prepared before tackling these new challenges, but I know that is not always (or perhaps, ever) possible. Anson and Forsberg’s claim is logical, though. Just like the physical act of writing, learning to write in a new way–for a new context–is a process. I did not start composing 15 page research projects when I was five. I had to start with the alphabet, followed by word, sentence, and paragraph construction. I think it’s easy to forget how much of a process we underwent to become writers, mostly because we have been doing it for such a long time period. By thinking of writing from this perspective, it makes it easier to remember that learning to write professionally will take time, just as it took time to learn how to write academically.

    One last concept I found particular interesting dealt with the people and sample pieces of writing from which we choose to model our own writing. Anson and Forsberg suggest asking the following question: “Is this person, his work, and his advice a good model for success in this arena?” when trying to find good sources for advice (218). Too often, I find myself asking, “Is this right?” but “right” is such a constructed term. Different pieces of writing can be “right” in different contexts. After reading the article, I realize how important it is to seek out mentors and samples specific to the genre or context I’m writing in, as it can drastically impact the way I organize and compose my work. It also helps to make the sample-seeking process more universal, since writers no longer have to hold their writing to a singular “true” correctness.

    Overall, I found the article extremely insightful. Much of the information was eye-opening, but I found it to be most useful when it opened my eyes to self-observation and evaluation. The article prompted me to reflect greatly on my personality, fears of the unknown professional world, and writing style. Although I still have some anxiety about transitioning my writing skills into a different context, I feel more comfortable knowing that, most likely, thousands of other interns or professionals have felt the same way at one point or another.

  5. LeeAnne Baumdraher permalink

    Was anyone else a little horrified by this article?

    Anson and Forsberg deliberately threw a handful of people into a lion’s den. It was almost like looking at a case study for that nutso Nazi doctor who used to experiment on twins. Almost.

    I know I’m jumping the shark here, and I wasn’t REALLY appalled by the study, but I CAN relate to the struggles these poor interns faced, for the good of future professional writers. While the five women received moderate instruction, sad, lonely Jim didn’t get any assistance during his internship. He just had to sink or swim.

    I can’t help but feel for these students because I’ve been there. I’ve struggled with learning a new company’s language. Written correspondence always take me a minute to compost because I want to make sure that:

    I’m being professional
    I’m being empathetic
    I’m asking/answering what I need to
    All tone and inflection is positive or neutral
    There are no errors

    That’s why this study was so necessary, though. People coming into the professional world don’t know to look for those five things. They’re arriving off of a handful of years in university, where academic papers were all they wrote. But, here, in Business Land, the natives speak a foreign tongue.

    At first, when I was introduced to the 3 Stages of Transition, I was unnerved. This is supposed to be a cycle that everyone experiences, and I didn’t want to be lumped in. But then I started reading more into the stages, and I realized that it’s all true. Those ARE the feelings I had at first! I DID feel pumped at first, then frustrated, then more comfortable as time went by. Based on just the fact that I can relate the outcome of this study to my own life, and link it so flawlessly, demonstrates the validity of Anson’s and Forsberg’s work.

    • Steve Krause permalink

      Well, I think internships can definitely have the feel of being thrown into the lion’s den. Actually, any big career or job transformation can feel like that. It’s been a while since I’ve experienced that (I’ve been at EMU and in this position since 1998, more or less), but I can definitely recall those transition moment between different workplaces way back when.

      Anyway, here is the key point about how this connects to basic topic of the course, which is (as the title suggests!) writing in professional (that is, non-academic) settings: it’s different. Writing for class is not the same as writing outside of class.

      This is really important to remember for two reasons.

      First, it’s really easy for students (and teachers!) in classes like this to get overly caught up in the details of the format– that is, a business letter looks like this, a report looks like that. The fact of the matter is there is no one “THE FORMAT” for any of this stuff, and what you have to do as a writer is be rhetorically savvy and be aware of the subtleties of the genres.

      Second, “good writing” isn’t automatically “good writing” in all contexts. I think people who are talented and skilled writers learn how to tailor their writing (again, it’s about rhetoric! it’s about knowing your audience and purpose! it’s about genre!), but it isn’t an automatic transition. You can be great at writing essays for a literature class and terrible at writing business reports, for example.

    • Natasha Wickenheiser permalink

      I can understand where you might feel the students were thrown into the internship, but aren’t all new jobs–and even classes–sort of like this? We are often thrust into environments which we may feel somewhat prepared for, but come to find out there are things we still need to learn.

      I thought it was wonderful that the students had the opportunity to discuss their anxieties, concerns, and growth with peers who were experiencing a similar new world of writing. If I were to start a new internship and experience some of the negative feelings these students experienced, I would feel extremely isolated. I think it would help to be able to express my feelings to someone who could affirm that I was not alone.

      • Jessica Kane permalink

        “If I were to start a new internship and experience some of the negative feelings these students experienced, I would feel extremely isolated.”

        Agreed. I would need a support system as well. This paper was reassurance that we all go through this process to some extent. I’ll have to remember to save this as a reference.

    • Latasha Davis permalink

      I agree internships are hard but it definitely necessary from college student that are academic robots to get there feet wets so to speak. They need to see what the real world requires and how to incorporate what they know to a professional world. People can’t learn without experience.

  6. Melanie Waller permalink

    I really enjoyed reading this article. It was a little long and it did take me a few tries to read it and stay with the program. My mind starting to drift as I was placing myself into each of the interns place and trying to understand just what they were feeling and how to adapt to the situation.

    I have seen this type of study before in some of my other classes and the results are almost but not quite the same. It’s like taking a placebo and the real drug, we need to know what the true outcomes are before we can decide if the tests really work.

    These interns were going from the classroom and years of learning at a structure institution to what I call the real world. I have worked and gone to school and have tried to warn my classmates that the real world doesn’t work like a textbook. Many don’t listen, they had to learn the hard way, which I guess is the best way, that when getting a job in whatever line of work isn’t always black and white.
    By being in foodservice most of my life and working in both the public sector and working in a hospital setting I have experienced a lot of shock at the new employees who come into our departments and have absolutely no clue as to what to expect from the jobs. These students have not been taught any of the basics to foodservice like I was many years ago. I am amazed, but yet I’m not, at the fact that students can’t cook, read and follow a recipe, understand simple basic ways on how to deal with a patient who has questions about a diet all because they are not taught this in class anymore. My generation is a dying breed because I learned that the patient is not a number but someone who has actual medical problems to deal with and need to be seen and heard. My feeling is that in today’s world we need to keep face-to-face communication with patients and not just sit in front of a computer all day long and diagnosis problems and then prescribe certain foods, drinks and a way of eating and never seeing this person. I can’t find personal problems and concerns on a chart, it needs to come from the patient to my concerning ears.

    So, these future writers have experienced what all new workers experience, life does not imitate art. By going through the stages of Expectation, Disorientation and Transition and Resolution, these writers experience what I call “the condensed stages of death”. First there is shock (and I think I’m talking culture shock), second there is that “glassy eye” (deer in the headlights look) as if to wonder if they made a mistake and this is all a bad dream and will get better if I just wake up, and third the realization that some or part of some of what I learned in college may not even be needed in the new job setting. Sure the basics are there, but one must sooner or later realize that it all comes down to what the boss wants. It sure makes life easier if one learns to adjust quickly and learn how things are done on the job and not fight the system,

    I know this piece was written many years ago and I do hope that all the participants learned to adapt to their jobs and learn much from the experiences that they had. But one must also realize that they do not know everything and in order to survive in this world, one must also learn something new each day.

    • Natasha Wickenheiser permalink

      You mentioned the importance of adjusting to a new job quickly and not fighting the system. I completely agree that this can make-or-break a person in a new work environment. By being more flexible and trying to “read” their new environment, people are better able to assimilate themselves into a new work culture–even if it is entirely unfamiliar to them. I think it is also important to note that this is a process, just as it is with learning to write.

    • Latasha Davis permalink

      I agree with your connection to transition from what you study in college and what you do as a professional or whatever job it may be. I’ve worked in the school setting for over 10 year. I’ve experience teacher coming straight out of college and are clueless in what a teacher consist of. Now we all know there is more to teaching then instruction but few realized that until they land the job and can’t function. Its amazes me how people come out of college either clueless of what they do next or can’t cope in the professional world. The transition takes twice as much work. I really think that hands- on experience helps. While I also agree with the article and how their examples of transition works.

      • Jessica Kane permalink

        “…the realization that some or part of some of what I learned in college may not even be needed in the new job setting.”

        This is exactly why I am taking this class. I can see that my communication skills are in need of some tweaking if I am to be understood clearly by my coworkers and employers. As mentioned by the researchers, my academic work will not “laterally” translate.

  7. Jessica Kane permalink

    As a non-traditional student, I feel there was an important part missing from this study. It may not have mattered in regards to the main point of professional assimilation, but would have shed light on individual perspective. I would have liked to have a bit more background on each student. Perhaps Jim, who had the most trouble, was the only student that did not have additional support at home in the form of family or friends. I also agree with Anson and Forsberg that a drawback of the study was the perceptions of supervisor feedback came directly from those it criticized.

    My criticisms of the study aside, I did enjoy reading and relating to the trepidation of the interns. Their experiences helped to define the following quote from M. M. Cooper (1986) found in the literature review:

    “Characteristics of any individual writer or piece of writing both determine and are determined by the characteristics of all the other writers and writings in the [socially constituted] systems”.

    I also particularly liked when talking about the “‘vertical’ transfer of situationally rooted knowledge [being] almost entirely a function of the context and content of a specific rhetorical situation”. This is an excellent description of critical evaluation. Students are taught to regurgitate instead of apply. Critical thinking comes with practice and context, and I can empathize with becoming frozen with self-doubt. Knowledge cannot be applied if unsure of ability and how to measure that ability so I agree that the process could not be one of linear progression.

  8. Ashleigh Swinehart permalink

    I quite enjoyed this particular article for the simple fact that I could relate to quite a few of the interns/participants (to an extent). For instance, when Louise writes, “…Because I knew if she was there, if I had a little question–I’d ask her. I’d want to ask her. And sometimes you have to ask a lot of questions. But sometimes it’s better not to, because a lot of times it’s things that you can figure out on your own…” (16), I heard my mother speaking to me in the same way she always did when stuck on a writing task or any other problem where I wanted to ask a million and two questions; when essentially the answer was right in front of me the entire time and I was over-thinking things again.

    I understand the stress and frustration the six interns faced, maybe not exactly beings that I have never had an internship, but I understand them wanting to perform their tasks perfectly the first time for a supervisor–I have been there. I have had quite a few jobs since high school and have been given individual tasks to do within my department with little to no guidance on what was exactly wanted from me. The same goes for writing papers in both high school and college. As the article mentions, when in school, teachers and professors lay out specific guidelines for what is expected from an essay or paper, but when it comes to the real world, it’s like the saying goes: “You’re on your own”.

    • Jessica Kane permalink

      “…I understand them wanting to perform their tasks perfectly the first time for a supervisor–I have been there. I have had quite a few jobs since high school and have been given individual tasks to do within my department with little to no guidance on what was exactly wanted from me.”

      I can also relate to wanting to do it right the first time. Taking the extra step, when you are thinking you are showing initiative, can be scary as well. When you are questioning your every move, its hard to know if you are headed in the right direction. However, without those risks, there is no failure and, therefore, no learning from mistakes.

  9. Latasha Davis permalink

    Moving beyond the Academic Community had a fascinating way in explaining how transitional stages work. In the professional world adapting to an environment allows the writer the experience to learn through “Trial and Error” .The case study showed a good example of what the interns went through that gave them the fundamental growth and help them establish themselves in the professional world. It showed how academic writing vs. professional writing is different. It also showed them ways that they adjusted from college to a professional setting. The study help them inquire a situations outside of there realm of a academic community and expand their knowledge to incorporate writing styles that fits the goals of the organization in which they are apart of.
    I can personally grasp the concept of Transiting stages in professional writing. I have had an experience where I was required to help create a detailed report on our schools involvement called the ” School Improvement Plan”. Adapting to a social setting of experienced professional was quite intimidating. It was something that was also still new to me. Long story short I went through all the stages. In the end my co-workers saw my strengths as well as my weakness. But I have to go through each stage to learn from them.

    • Jessica Kane permalink

      “In the end my co-workers saw my strengths as well as my weakness. But I have to go through each stage to learn from them.”

      Great point. Many times in interviews, I have been asked about strengths and weaknesses. What the interviewer is actually asking is how you are able to compensate for your weaknesses and how you can help another compensate for theirs. Without the experiences of failure and reflection, it would be impossible to know these answers.

  10. Leah permalink

    Wow! After reading the introduction I knew that I would get semi disappointed. I could see very much why disorientation strongly took place during this internship. As if I was one of the chosen individuals I would have also been very confused, being that all the information taught during college varies to a certain extent. This is a great example of adjusting to different genres. The six individuals were familiar with one genre (college writing), so that when approached with an unfamiliar genre (given a task with no instruction or help) it misleads these individuals to frustration. They had no knowledge of change that made everything so difficult.

    Basically saying welcome to the real world.

    • Brian Gardner permalink

      It didn’t even occur to me to think this in terms of genres. As said in the article, categorization is hard in practice, but very important here. Professors can do a lot to prepare students for writing in the business world, but still most professors only know in detail how to make academic articles or specified technical writings, which can’t be transcribed to all or even most fields of writing. Seems like the best way to prepare students is to make them learn to adapt to new genres and/or contexts.

  11. Brian Gardner permalink

    First off, the quote at the start troubled me a lot – maybe the times have changed, but for the most part I’ve been taught to cut out as much as you can. The intern quoted seems to have had a different experience, saying that he’s been told to expand his points more and more. While ensuring abundance of content as well as providing heavily-backed arguments is “good writing”, I don’t remember being told in writing classes that concision is a bad thing.

    The business world has mixed practices. Most classes that I’ve had in business tell you to keep it short, but my writing intensive accounting course served as a shock when briefly outlining the key points was considered inferior writing to listing every fact from related articles.
    There is an important distinction to make, however, between detail-oriented academic accounting writing and writing for generic business people, who only want the main points and established credibility.

    Getting to the main point of the article, I can say I’ve had similar experiences in my own job experiences, although generally involving menial labor. Every time I start a new job, I am anxious about the expectations, but eventually I fall into a comfort zone. What they say about the cycle of expectation, disorientation, and resolution are definitely not exclusive to writing careers at all.

    Though I’ve not had any sort of internship, many members of my organization Beta Alpha Psi have discussed their experiences. Accounting students like myself often carry the expectation that skills learned in the classroom and textbooks will always carry over into the workplace. However, nearly every one of them says that their expectations are shattered immediately. Much like the subjects mentioned in the article, these students mention being afraid to ask questions about how to do their work.

    Although entirely new to working on tax forms or audit assignments for sixty plus hours a week, the veterans managed to transition successfully to the workplace environment.

    There is one material difference to note, however – most students I’ve listened to were welcome to ask questions from the supervisors. Being that the article was written in 1990, the most likely explanation for this is that internship programs have developed significantly. It’s also common in the accounting field to obtain a full-time position from the same place they had their internship. Since these internships are usually paid, the companies do what they can to recover the training costs.

    All in all, the points made were hardly surprising in my experience. Education gives plenty of useful technical skills, but jobs are always catered to who hands out the paychecks.

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