Skip to content

Reading and Discussing Dirk’s “Navigating Genres”

by Steve Krause on September 7th, 2014

Besides “rhetoric,” one of the other big concepts/ideas I want you to consider at the opening of the class is “genre.” I think genre is a term we usually associate with “types” of books or movies– you know, science fiction, romance, comedy, thriller, etc. Within genres there are other genres too– steam punk and space opera are examples of genres within the larger genre of science fiction.

But genre is also a useful term/concept when thinking about other kinds of writing and texts, including the kinds of writing we are doing in this class. Business letters, reports, resumes, and instructions are all kinds of genres that all have particular rules and that all are kinds of writing that are a result of specific purposes and situations.

This is where Kerry Dirk’s essay “Navigating Genres” comes into play. This is a useful (and, in my opinion, well-written) introduction to how genres work rhetorically. As she points out, our familiarity with the conventions of genres helps us as readers understand how the text works (jokes and ransom notes are particularly good examples here), and we make new texts based on what we know writers did in that genre previously.

From → Uncategorized

34 Comments
  1. LeeAnne Baumdraher permalink

    I’m 27 years old, and I have the soul of a woman much, much, much older. I’ve been told this countless times, and I know it to be true. For example, I was stricken with grief when Lauren Bacall and James Garner passed away. I am willing to bet that the majority of my peers would have no clue who these people are, let alone grieve for them.

    As another example, I often find myself debating with my 50 plus year old coworker on old music, movies, books, etc. And just this last Friday I insisted to this woman that The Carpenters were in the music genre of folk music. To be clear, although I said “folk,” I was thinking more along the lines of “easy listening.” But this little faux pas gave way to a wonderful opportunity for my coworker to give me a hard time. She refused to budge on her categorization of The Carpenters into the “soft rock” category, and ONLY soft rock. Even after I googled the two-man band and showed written proof that the duo is classified as “soft rock, easy listening and adult contemporary,” she stood her ground, denying the latter two genres.

    This battle of trivial knowledge would not be possible without the concept of genres. If there was no such thing as a genre, my coworker and I would have just agreed that The Carpenters was music, and that would be that. No friendly argument, no passionate debate.

    The importance of genres is beyond great. I mean, they allow us to classify, and without classification, the world would be a little chaotic. In the sense of entertainment, genres also allow us to be individuals. They give us the chance to say, “I’m not much of a fan of country music; I’m more of a classic rock guy, myself.” And that helps us understand each other just a little more than before.

    But with branching out beyond entertainment, now we have genres where we know how to address someone, Just like Dirk said about George Washington being a trailblazer, now President Obama has an idea how to speak to America.

    I think most people believe genres are used to separate radio shows or categorize novels, but they are so much more.

  2. Natasha Wickenheiser permalink

    Although I am familiar with the concept of genres, I do not tend to explicitly think of genres when approaching a writing assignment. At a deeper level, I subconsciously know that writing a research paper and press release require separate styles and content, but I rarely stop to think, “These genres are similar and/or different because of X, Y, Z.”

    There is value in putting more thought into the genres we are surrounded by–especially when we are asked to write a piece that belongs in a genre with which we are less familiar. We can gain a lot of insight by just being aware of different genres, and doing a little research. For example, I had to write my first case study last semester. Having never written one before, I searched “how to write a case study” in Google, and was presented with helpful tips. From my research, I concluded that a case study was similar to a research paper, but with a stronger focus on an individual person, company, or thing, rather than a broader research question. With this information, I integrated my previous knowledge of writing research papers with newly-gained insight from sample case studies in order to write an effective case study. Our former knowledge and available resources can be extremely helpful when attempting to navigate a new genre of writing.

    I also really liked that Dirk addresses the “rules” we have about writing. He speaks directly about thesis statements, but there are a million different “rules” that we’ve been taught regarding writing. For example, I was always told that no two sentences in a paragraph should start with the same word. I was also taught never to write in first person. Although I did not begin to realize this until college, these “rules” are mere suggestions for certain genres of writing. Part of what makes writing so difficult is that there are not always straight-forward rules when it comes to composition. It can be challenging, but I think it is important that writers keep these suggestions at arms-length, for they can inhibit our creativity when writing something.

    • Chelsea Idzior permalink

      Natasha,

      I completely agree with you that I have never thought about what goes into a research paper or a press release from a genre perspective. I always just think, well that’s the way you learned it, so that’s the way you do it! It’s feels kind of strange to actually sit back and analyze it from the perspective that I am constructing these pieces of writing this way because of my understanding of them as a genre.

      • Natasha Wickenheiser permalink

        I agree! Although it seems weird to take a step back and analyze the writing pieces from a genre perspective, I also think it helps me understand them more fully.

    • Leah permalink

      Wow your second paragraph truly shows the matter of filling in the blanks. You gained knowledge from your case study project that you now take with you on further research papers. This is a relation to Bitzer’s example of “ when something new happens that requires a response, someone must create that first response”. Basically, you researched “how to write a case study” and found helpful tips. The tips that you found had to originate from someone or various amounts of people that has done studies, researched, and even work for different case study projects.

      It’s so had to say what I really want, but your second paragraph truly shows that you have “resulted in creation of a new genre”.

      Love your response.

  3. Ashleigh Swinehart permalink

    As mentioned by the professor, most people when they hear the term “genre” immediately think of books, movies or games, and not necessarily types of papers written for a specific audience or purpose. I am, or was, one of those people, for I never put two-and-two together and did not classify different writing assignments into genres, but rather I dubbed them as belonging to “categories” where I felt they fit best. Yes, putting different types of writing assignments into categories is basically the same thing as applying the piece to a genre, but the word “genre” never came to mind in those instances. I always separated genre and category based on what I was talking about. If I was referring to a movie, novel or game, I would say genre, but a writing assignment for something specific was always dubbed under a category.

    “Genre used to refer primarily to form, which meant that writing in a particular genre was seen as simply a matter of filling in the blanks. ” (Page 4). I also remember being told this exact definition when the topic of genre came up in English class. We had genres of writing described to us -from classic to romantic- and were only ever exposed to the use of the words genre and writing (outside of modern novels) used together in that singular way, and no other. Never did we hear genre used when told to write a paper, whether it be a research paper or a book report. I guess if I were to have the amount to knowledge now as I did then, maybe I could have deduced that genre encompasses writing topics and styles, as well as the common ideas of books, movies and games, too.

    Aside from me pointing out learning something new about genre and not learning enough about it in high school, I found this piece by Dirks informative, helpful and funny (when describing country music).

    • LeeAnne Baumdraher permalink

      You know, I never understood why country gets that rep about losing your car, wife, dog, etc. If you think about it, most music genres have specific things they stick to. Rap has money, sex and violence. Pop has love and partying. Rock has sex and partying. Song content, I think, is one of the reasons music is classified by genre.

    • Latasha Davis permalink

      I too liked the way he used the example with the country song. It was a great example of what genres means with a mystery twist. I really liked the letter that translated to ways in which writing styles are used.. I didn’t really think about genre as a way information is expressed to a specific audience. I guess you learn something new every day. I will be more aware of how terms are used.

  4. Kourtney Lovett permalink

    I found this piece to be quite informative as well as entertaining. I love when I can read what I consider to be academic pieces that aren’t dull or so serious. Kerry Dirk’s use of examples and quotes were very well placed and helped me simplify the concepts that she was examining.

    While the piece in general really made me ponder about genres, there were a few examples that I really enjoyed. On page 252, Dirk analyzes a quote rhetorician Lloyd Bitzer’s quote. Personally, I really enjoyed how she simplified the quote and proceeded to provide a comprehensive example (George Washington giving the first State of the Union Address) of her explanation. Her explanation as well as her example caused me to ponder over how new genres are formed and how influential previous ideas/works can be to those that help genres evolve.

    Perhaps my favorite part of this piece was Dirk’s fictitious ransom scenario and potential ransom notes. While they were funny, they also helped me understand the concept of “two texts that might fit into the same genre might also look extremely different” (255). While all of the notes fall under the genre of ransom notes, they were all different in terms of voice, style, etc. As Dirk stated, this concept seems like it can get a bit tricky but with examples such as this one, it can be easily dissected.

    Overall, I really enjoyed how Dirk tackled the topic of genres with a variety of examples and quotes.

  5. Melanie Waller permalink

    After reading this article, I have come to the conclusion that I have used genres all my life and didn’t really know it. I guess in one form or another, my life and what I have done is a genre.

    I understand that Dirk is trying to convey that when one writes, one is using both life experiences and education to convey a statement to others. I never looked at it that way, but he does make some very good points about putting words on paper. Not only do we write for an audience, but we also want to get reactions from them also, so amongst the research we do, we also put in our own personal experiences or opinions.

    I know that I have never thought about genre in anything I have done in my life, I just put it up to past experiences and knowledge and get my message across to others when I want to state my opinion.

    I do like country music (the older stuff) that told a story. Sure, there is heartache, losing a job, etc., etc., but there are also songs that tell how one grew up back in the hollers and hills. It seems funny, though, these songs stick with a person and some can even relate. Country music now doesn’t seem to stay around long and most go by the wayside after a short career.

    I also got the point that when one starts to write a paper, that there are examples out there that one can use to help write that paper. It’s a certain pattern we follow to try to get our message across, and I never realized this until now. I just always looked at examples and then tried to put down my words and fit them into a format, but now I have a better idea of what and how to go about this in a new way and realize that my audience is beyond this piece of white paper that I am writing on.

    I hope I got some of the points of this article. I did enjoy reading it and it makes me think that I too can write much better than I did before

    • Steve Krause permalink

      I know what you mean about using genres and not really knowing it– and yet still kind of intuitively knowing it. I mean, you probably don’t need to be a fan of country music to see her examples of the genre of country music as being kind of funny and accurate. I think her example of the ransom note is really right because while (I am assuming) none of us have written ransom notes, it is easy to pick out the one that would probably be best. That sort of suggests the weird ways that genres and conventions work on us without us being completely aware of it.

      Another example that occurs to me of where genres go wrong is with the examples from The Onion. Their headlines are famously funny, biting, ironic, satirical, etc. To find them funny, you have to have some familiarity with the genre though– that is, you have to be aware that these headlines are following the rules and conventions of satire and exaggeration to make a funny point.

      But people don’t “get” the joke all the time. There are TONS of examples of this on Facebook. Here’s an article from The Daily Beast that rounds up some of the most embarrassing Onion headline “fails.”

      http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2012/09/29/fooled-by-the-onion-8-most-embarrassing-fails.html

  6. Kristen Smith permalink

    Not only was this piece very well written, but it was also captivating and brought my attention to a lot of different aspects of genre. Admittedly, I’ve never put too much thought into genre outside of selecting a novel to read or a movie to watch, but this essay definitely has me viewing genre in a new way. I’ve always viewed my own writing as needing to serve a purpose and get a point across, so I’ve always thought of and constructed my pieces in a manner that served its purpose and got its point across. After reading this essay, I feel that I have a better grasp on different forms of writing, their genres, and what that means for me as a writer.

    In the essay, Dirk gives a variety of examples of genres that we write in. A few of these include research essays, formal letters, Facebook statuses, and even ransom notes (definitely one of the most entertaining parts of the essay). I’ve never thought of these as genres in which we write in, but rather as styles or ways to write in. I’ve always thought of these different genres as having different rules and structures, but I’ve never thought about them as genres or what it means as a writer to create a piece within these genres.

    I also enjoyed Dirk’s multiple examples and ways of highlighting how different genres held different requirements and what these requirements meant for writers. As has been mentioned in previous posts, one of the ways Dirk best does this is through the construction of the kidnapping/ransom note scenario. This example not only led to a few chuckles, but it also highlighted how important it is to follow the rules and expectations of a genre in order to convey a message and give the audience a piece that makes sense within its genre. This example, while completely out of the ordinary writing experience, definitely gave me a clear idea of how genre works in writing and how we as writers need to ensure we are staying true to the genre in which we are writing.

    Overall, I found this essay extremely informative and interesting. I enjoyed reading it and found many of the examples and scenarios Dirk set up to be enlightening. I enjoyed reading an essay that both taught me new subject matter and made me view writing in a different way, but also kept me interested and gave me examples I could follow and relate to. This essay has definitely given a me a new scope to view my own writing from and a new way to look at my writing within its specific genre.

  7. Sabrina Gissendaner permalink

    First of all, I wasn’t exactly excited about reading an essay on genres, and I was surprised to find that Dirk’s writing is refreshing and interesting. Second of all, like many of you, I would say that my perception of genre is/was not broad enough! I understand different genres and subgenres of writing, movies, music, etc. but it is more based upon their general content, rather than the patterns they follow or specific details that are key to certain genres.

    After having read Dirk’s essay, I will likely read my favorite genres in a new light, one that focuses more on what specific genre a writer was going for based upon the patterns I see in the writing. I my own writing, I know I can look to other writing in the same genre I am aiming for in order to find guidance in creating a structure.

    I still don’t think I have a 100% solid grasp on the vast expanse that is the potential of every genre, but this essay opened my eyes to the specifics a little bit more.

    • Chelsea Idzior permalink

      Sabrina,

      I would definitely have to agree with you that when I hear that I will be reading an essay about genres…it’s definitely not top on my list of things to do. But, like you, I actually enjoyed this essay. It was easy to read and get through, and I found it helpful. It spelled out that whole “what came first, the chicken or the egg?” aspect of writing within genres by explaining how genres are created and how it is then decided what genre a piece of writing belongs to.

      I think it is a good idea to look for writing within the same genre for help when you are writing. I often do this, without even realizing I’m doing it. If I am writing a paper that is a genre I am unfamiliar with, I typically google search an example paper for stylistic inspiration. I had, however, never thought of this in terms of genre before. I always just thought, “I’m looking up an example of a lyric essay.” Not, “I’m looking up a sample from the genre of lyric essay so that I can make sure that my writing falls into that genre.”

  8. Chelsea Idzior permalink

    I really like Dirk’s first example about the country song because it immediately got me thinking: does the genre shape the material or does the material shape the genre? After reading this piece, I would say that it is a little bit of both. She described how genres are created when a new writing situation is approached in a certain way, and people use that approach as a model for a similar scenario. In this way, content creates a new genre, and then people use that established genre as a way to help and guide them with content in the future.

    I agree with Dirk that similarities within genres help communication go smoothly. How could we ever write a research paper for class if we did not have some sort of genre conventions to guide us? We might end up writing it in the first person, with no citations, and no paragraphical separation–all things that are not acceptable within the genre of research papers. Same goes for a genre such as a Facebook comment. Can you imagine if people wrote out their Facebook comments like formal letters: “Dear Jane, …… Sincerely, Chelsea”. This would be extremely obnoxious, which is why it is both necessary and beneficial to understand genres.

    • Natasha Wickenheiser permalink

      Chelsea,

      I think the differences in writing genres, and our expectations for them, become more obvious when we place them in comparison with something else, as you’ve illustrated. We don’t start to think about the identifiable characteristics of a genre until we’ve compared them to the characteristics of a Facebook status, eulogy, press release, or some other form of writing. It’s almost scary to think about people using random conventions for written pieces when we expect them to write a particular way due to a piece’s genre. It’d be like a professor walking into class wearing sweatpants and a sombrero. I wouldn’t know how to feel about the individual and his or her credibility.

    • Melanie Waller permalink

      Wouldn’t the material come first? Because that’s why we write isn’t it? Don’t we write about experiences instead of the other way around? Good point, but I think we write about things that happen first because it gives us our focal point.

      • Steve Krause permalink

        It’s a bit of a both, Melanie. A lot of times, an event happens and that demands a certain kind of fitting genre of response. Eulogies are an easy example because they are written and delivered in response to the particular event of someone’s death. The material has to come after the event, right?

        On the other hand, sometimes rhetoric is meant to cause change in the first place. For example, a letter of complaint is generally designed to get someone to do something to make things right. In that sense, you have the material/event and your text is trying to impact some kind of action.

        • Melanie Waller permalink

          I just figured that we write due to an event or an idea we have in our heads. I guess I always thought that if something happened in our lives or in the lives of those around us gives us the material we need.

  9. Nijea Wilson permalink

    This class is definitely starting to make me think about things totally different. Like others when someone says genre I think of movies or books and this article was a great way to showcase how writing pieces can be put into different genres. The writer had a great examples and scenarios to get you thinking about how you’re labeling or putting things into categories. The country song example right at the beginning definitely had my mind wondering about listening to what is actually being said or written down and interpreting my own style or genre based on what i feel the song or piece is about.

    I look forward to learning more on this topic and actually applying it to my writing.

  10. Jessica Kane permalink

    I was unaware that rhetoric had a negative connotation to it (“not just for liars”). I have always thought it an important way to explain your position. When thinking of rhetoric, I do think of “charged” language, but what language isn’t? I believe that is the point of both the video and the essay.

    The triangle of language (Pathos, Logos, and Ethos) was something I had come across years ago, but couldn’t remember the intricacies (I am not a writing major, so please bear with me on the lack of my knowledge in these matters). I wanted more information on these and found the following website quite illuminating:

    http://courses.durhamtech.edu/perkins/aris.html

    Regarding Ms. Dirk’s “Navigating Genres”, I appreciated her candor when discussing her struggle in writing in a new genre. She does come across as she intends – warm, humorous, humble – and, although she admits ignorance in this style of writing, still establishes herself as a trusted source by explaining the process by which she came to write the essay.

    • Melanie Waller permalink

      I had to chuckle when I read your discussion. It was a good chuckle. I automatically thought of The Three Musketeers when you wrote those words. 🙂 I grew up reading those old stories and I have seen a lot of movies made about the classics (as I call them) because I am and always will be fascinated with the time period and language used. When one really listens, you hear something special. Even in todays conservations with my friends and co-workers, we quote from days gone past and get quite a kick out of “remembering” who said what, when and where.
      She did make it seem very interesting about this style of writing and I’m excited to see if I do learn this technique

      • Elyse Cawetzka permalink

        I appreciate the fact that you take old quotes and throw them into everyday conversations with friends and co-workers. I do the same thing and am never really sure whether or not they are getting my inside references and underlying meaning of why I said it. I think that interpreting different genres into other or newer genres makes for a fascinating conversation.

        • Melanie Waller permalink

          My favorite one to quote is Mr. Spock from the Star Trek series. If you know who that is, it was from many years ago (even I was a kid) but I just love the way he says something in the Vulcan way and it makes me laugh til I cry because he has no facial expressions and is totally serious but doesn’t get the human factor.

      • LeeAnne Baumdraher permalink

        Haha. Pathos, Logos, and Ethos, The Three Musketeers. I don’t think I can unlearn this now.

      • Steve Krause permalink

        I had to look this up, but the names of the Three Musketeers were/are Athos, Aramis, and Porthos. But I like the idea that they were pathos, ethos, and logos better. 🙂

        • Melanie Waller permalink

          they are literature characters from way back when, and I just saw the “new” movie version featuring John Malkovich, Leo Decaprio,
          etc. etc and that’s why I put the two together. That’s kinda my sense of humor. I think about the dumbest things at times and just spit them out so don’t be offended by what I write But like I said, I love the way they spoke in the olden days and over there across the pond. People don’t talk or write that way anymore

  11. Elyse Cawetzka permalink

    I actually really enjoyed this article. It made me realize that I’ve used different genres throughout my life in many different ways, without knowing it. It made me question my writing and thinking, on which genre I most associate with and lean towards. I will admit that I have never thought out of the box of what a genre was. When I thought of genre I went to movie genres or music genres but never writing.

    I couldn’t help but think of this class and our discussions as I read about Bitzer saying that “when something new happens that requires a response, someone must create that first response. Then when that situation happens again, another person uses the first response as a basis for the second, and eventually everyone who encounters this situation is basing his/her response off the previous ones, resulting in the creation of a new genre.” It made me think that we, as a class, create new genres with each discussion we have.

    I never considered a genre to be hurtful either. I suppose that that goes in hand with rhetoric and how it is just a way of communicating in different ways. While reading this essay the similarities between genres and rhetoric seemed uncanny. I found this essay quite amusing, well written and informative. Definitely a good interesting read!

  12. Brian Gardner permalink

    I haven’t thought about genres in the way the writer described it before – I’ve always thought it silly to debate the classification. The importance of genres is their ability to make it easier to compare and contrast creative works.

    It’s interesting that the writer brings up the “creation” of a genre. Rarely do we think we’re starting a new genre or subgenre when writing, but it obviously starts somewhere. It seems like now the most apparent genres (fantasy or sci-fi) are ones that our writing “needs” to fit into, and the opportunity for new genres to arise has been exhausted.

    Yet, subgenres are created constantly. What comes to mind is public relations, since it’s a fairly new one that arose from capitalistic society. In the face of ethics movements, companies maintain and improve profits by increasing credibility in the eye of consumers. Much like the infomercial, effective public relations appears informative and educational while keeping business interests at the top.

    Political affiliations also relate to genres, as nobody is an exact conservative/liberal, but declaring oneself as an independent does not satisfy any curiosities. Calling yourself an adherent of one side or the other can make you appear as a gun-crazed anarchist or drone of President Obama.

  13. Leah permalink

    When I hear the word genre the first speculation that come to mind is music. I grew up in a church environment and around music all of my life, which has paved the way for my passion of singing and my love for music. As I ponder upon the word “genre” I think of pop, country, jazz, hip-hop, gospel and more as their own category of genres. Never once in my life did I think until now that genres could mean as much as explained throughout Navigating Genres.

    Over the summer I had taken SPGN 323W (writing in special education). This course expand my thought process based on my writing skills. There were three main projects that were different from each other. A Personal Statement was the first project; the second was a Literature Review, and lastly a Parent Packet Project. The personal statement project was a breeze for me, being that I had done many before (rhetorical). The literature review and parent packet project on the other hand was a challenge because I had never done these projects before, and I had no knowledge (besides the teacher instructions) of how to go about doing either of the two.

    This brings me to my point on how I could relate to Devitt example of genres on a research paper. I had the idea of how my paper should look based on the instructions provided, but I didn’t know the context in which these two assignments were to be used. This was an example of a genre that I never thought about.

    I feel that his example was totally up my alley in regards to different writing projects acquire different “genres as rhetorical situations”. As these projects were presented, I then should have taken the time out to review these projects based on genres. My thought process has changed even more now because of this reading. When future project are presented I will take a step back and say, “what is it that I know about the project, and what is it that I don’t know about the project” to decided my genre of writing.

    Overall navigating genres will gain ones knowledge of thinking outside of the box. Although there were many more examples, Devitt example hit home with me.

  14. Mary Rutkowski permalink

    This essay actually helped me put the video into perspective. I left the video a little confused about rhetoric and what it really had to do with writing. When the idea of genres came into it, it really made sense. I never really think about the audience that I am writing for or the style in which my writing would best be understood.

    I’ve written complaint letters, songs, research papers, but I am (just like the essay said) always focused on the outcome. I want to hear input from other people about what I am writing and I want to make sure that it sounds eloquent and that to the point that I am trying to make. I have never thought about writing for one specific person or group. It always feels like I need the gratification from the most amount of people, not any one group specifically. I think that this essay has really challenged me to think about what I will be writing in the future. It has made me want to think about my writing process and proof read everything before I submit it.

    The ransom letters were absolutely hilarious too. I had to read those aloud to my mom so she could understand why I was giggling at my homework.

    • Latasha Davis permalink

      Yes, I agree. When I think about writing this article have gave me great insight on the audience and purpose. It not only important to grasp the reader attention but also making sure I’m persuading the right audience. I like the random letter a lot. Yes it was very funny but also showed a concrete example in how our writing can be misinterpreted through the wrong use of language and writing style.

  15. Latasha Davis permalink

    This have been a very interesting article. I also have thought of genres as types of book and it’s theme such as Fables, Historical fiction, Fantasy and many more. After reading Kerry Dirk’s chapter on “Navigating Genres” I can see the term ” genre” is much more than just limited types of reading but also the style in which a particular writing pieces is written. Being aware of the audience with whom you seek, knowing the rhetorical features that guides your writing, and the rhetorical situation that guided each genre and it’s differences.
    I really enjoyed the examples Dirks used “The Ransom Letter”. When I was reading each letter I knew what he was trying to inform . I understood what he meant by rhetorical situation. It perfectly shown how genres and rules are interchangeable.

  16. Allyson Bruske permalink

    There is a lot of different definitions when it comes to genres, which I had no idea about until I took the HLAD 307W course at EMU. I had previously thought genres were only different types of books or music. My knowledge of them extended from fiction or non-fiction and country or pop. As a professional, genre has a whole new meaning as different types of writing for our careers and personal lives that has a strong effect on how people “judge” you or perceive you. In my HLAD 307W class, she referred to our group project “advertisements” as genre pieces. These included flyers, websites, budget proposals, letters, and etc. I had never heard of this so it was very different to me to refer to my flyer design as a genre. The article really helped to broaden my ideas of what a genre is and how it can change my writing. As everyone else mentioned, the article helped me realize what kind of changes I can make when beginning a piece of writing by considering who I am writing in reference to and how they will see that piece.

Leave a Reply

Note: XHTML is allowed. Your email address will never be published.

Subscribe to this comment feed via RSS